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DNA (Deoxyribonucleotide Acid), the molecule that is found in our cells’ nuclei, is a sequence of chemical bases, called nucleobases: A (Adenine), T (Thymine), C (Cytosine), G (Guanine). These bases are founding certain order/sequence, like letters in a sentence, and create two strands pairing with each other in a certain way, leading to formation of a spiral, called double helix structure. DNA contains our genes and DNA material. Each DNA molecule of one cell consists of 3 billion base pairs with a total length of about 2 meters! In order to fit in the nucleus of a cell, the DNA needs to get supercoiled and packaged by enzymes and proteins supporting its structure. This thread-like structures are called chromosomes. Within this huge sequence of letters consisting the chromosomes, scientist locate at specific positions (called genetic locus) the units called genes.
Each DNA molecule of one cell consists of 3 billion base pairs with a total length of about 2 meters! In order to fit in the nucleus of a cell, the DNA needs to get supercoiled and packaged by enzymes and proteins supporting its structure. This thread-like structures are called chromosomes. Within this huge sequence of letters consisting the chromosomes, scientist locate at specific positions (called genetic locus) the units called genes.
Genes are the organized segments/units in DNA sequence which contain the DNA code, providing with the essential “instructions” for biological processes needed for the function of our organism. If you think of the DNA as a book, each gene could be considered as a specific order of letters (the sequence of bases mentioned above) giving meaning to each sentence. The Human Genome Project that aimed to decode the human DNA and define the genes that it contains, estimated the number of our genes between 20,000 and 25,000.
However, apart from the units of genes, other sequence of the DNA seems to play a significant, regulatory role for the proper expression and function of the genes.
Human genome is the complete sequence of our DNA, our complete DNA material: including our genes and all other sequence (either regulatory or with unknown function.)
Almost 99.9% of human DNA is identical among all people. It is the remaining 0.1% that makes us each unique. Despite this rate sounds extremely low, given the fact that the DNA molecule consists of 3 billion base pairs, letters in our DNA book, there are approximately 3 million variant sites between two people! These differences are called DNA/DNA variants, and consist our unique DNA identity. Many of them are “silent” having no effect (or their effect has not been so far discovered by researchers), others are related to our characteristics (from physical appearance, predisposition to disease, even to our personality) and the rarest of them are causal of DNA disease. Genetic variation comes from some occasional errors that happen during the cells’ division when the DNA replicates to provide one copy to each cell. Like the “typos” we may found in a book! Two people share more or less the same book, having even several same typos, but the combination of the typos in their books is totally unique for each of them! Research has shown that even identical twins, may have some–definitely significantly lower compared to unrelated people- differences in their DNA!
Predictive Genomics (PG) is the field of DNAs science that focuses on the identification of DNA variants associated with certain effects on biological functions and development of medical conditions. However, research studies are not limited strictly to the medical area, but also expand to general understanding of several human traits. As a result, DNAs research has revealed and continues to identify a significant range of DNA variants affecting several aspects of wellbeing: e.g. nutrients metabolism, sport performance, weight regulation, aging process, personality and behavior. Carrying specific DNA variations may predispose a person to certain disadvantages for the examined trait, or on the opposite, to benefit them with certain advantages.
In order to examine your personal potential needs for optimal wellbeing, our Geneticists have designed integrated panels for the analysis of a large range of DNA variants. We offer DNA report assessments in the areas of: Beauty, Healthy Diet and Weight Management, Fitness, Personality & Inborn Talents. Genes and DNA variants are categorized in sections based on their effect on specific biological processes. During analysis of your personal sample, our scientists will detect the presence or absence of specific DNA variations associated with certain traits. Our goal and vision is to provide you with a valuable insight into your DNA background and your potential DNA predisposition. Your DNA reports can be a precious guide for the appropriate and personalized actions that you may need to take in order to eliminate as much as possible your potential DNA barriers and/or enhance your DNA advantages.
Dnation provides you with the precious opportunity to “read” your DNA and know if and how your DNA make-up is likely to be associated with certain traits related to the general concept of the well-being. Depending on your goal you choose the package that is useful for you and with a simple and straightforward process our team of experts will analyze your sample and provide you with your personal DNA report. Your results pave the way for the implementation of the most effective and personalized actions you need to take to benefit from your DNA “strengths” and/or compensate for your DNA “weaknesses”.
The DNA variants which the DNAists choose to include in our panels fulfill the below criteria:
✓ Biological functions/traits per DNA report type: Multifactorial and, as much as possible, polygenic. Allows intervention and modification of the potential DNA effect by implementation of customized lifestyle recommendations, plans and products.
✓ DNA variations tested per each biological function/trait: Direct association with the biological process, as documented in scientific research and literature.
✓ Up to date: Constant evaluation of the selected DNA variations and panels of medical conditions/biological processes. Constant review of new research evidence to enhance our processes and adjust our approach.
Dnation is excited to make the difference in DNA Customized Wellness services! Our team of scientists boasts a long history in predictive genomics DNA testing for consumers. Together, we've used our experience to develop our wide range of DNA reports and traits assessments focused on wellness. We are proud to have developed and implement all the computational logics required for the assessments and the automatic processes to provide you with a simple and comprehensive insight into your genetic make-up. What makes us different is not only the range of our DNA reports assessments but also the extent of our DNA profiling panels themselves (more than 200!), as well as the criteria we have established to choose the DNA variants examined. Each DNA report is designed based on an integrated approach to include several different aspects of biological processes related to wellness categorized in sections (“categories” = traits and biological functions). Overall we examine more than 40 traits! Also, we do not focus on a limited number of DNA variants to estimate your DNA predisposition for a specific trait, most of traits examined are “polygenic”, meaning that more than one DNA variation or gene is involved: for the vast majority of traits investigated we include a variety of DNA variants, which act cumulatively contributing synergistically (all together) to the manifestation of the trait.
Dnation does not only stay on the surface of your DNA data. We go one step further, designing customized services, like training and dietary plans but also products, like skincare and supplements, especially for your needs. Our vision is to identify the problem and give you the solution! To do so we integrate all available information provided from you: along with your DNA report assessment we take into account your answers to a comprehensive lifestyle questionnaire.
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